Google Assistant app on iPhone with the results of a “what time does dr. ruhlman office close” query. The results displayed include a card with “8:30AM–5:00PM” and the label, “Dr. Ruhlman Scott MD, Tuesday hours,” as well as links to call the office, search on Google, get directions, and visit a website. Additionally, there are four buttons labeled with the words “directions,” “phone number,” and “address,” and a thumbs-up emoji.

As it’s composed of content that’s marked up 36,, despite the visual simplicity of the Town of Seattle parking page, it ensures that the integrity of its material across contexts. “Pay My Ticket” is a level-one going (

), and every one of the options below it’s level-two headings (

), which signify they are subordinate to the level-one element.

By communicating clearly in a context that currently includes aggregation and inference, organizations are effectively able to consult with their customers where users are, be it on a website, an internet search engine results page, or even a voice-controlled digital helper. They are also able to keep control over the accuracy of their messages by ensuring that the correct content are available and hauled across contexts.

Google Assistant app on iPhone with the results of a “how do I pay a parking ticket in Seattle” query, showing nearly the same results as on the desktop web page referenced above.
  • Designing Connected Content, Carrie Hane and Mike Atherton
  • The pane on the right indicates the values that are machine-readable.

    While I inquire Google Assistant what time Dr. Donion’s office closes, the result is not only less useful but actually points me in the wrong direction. Rather than a selection of focused actions to follow up in my query, I am presented with the hours of operation and contact information to MultiCare Neuroscience Center.
    These kinds of fast interactions, however, are just one small piece of a far bigger problem: connected data is increasingly key to maintaining the integrity of articles online. Such as the hospitals, government agencies, and colleges I have consulted for decades, do not measure the success of the communications efforts in ad clicks or page views. Success for them means connecting components patients, and community members with accurate information about the business and services. This communication-based definition of achievement easily applies to any type of organization working to further its business goals.
    In this instance, we could see that Google can find plenty of connections to Dr. Donion in its own standard index outcomes, but it isn’t able to”know” the information about these sources well enough to present an aggregated outcome. In this case, that the Knowledge Graph understands Dr. Donion is a Kaiser Permanente doctor, but it pulls at the wrong place and the incorrect physician’s name in its attempt to construct a Knowledge Graph display.

    Google search results info box for Dr. Ruhlman, showing an photo; a map; ratings; an address; reviews; buttons to ask a question, leave a review, and add a photo; and other people searched for.
    Google Assistant app on iPhone with the results of a “how do I pay a parking ticket in Boston” query, showing results only weakly related to the intended content.
    The City of Seattle website’s “Pay My Ticket” page, with the HTML heading elements outlined and labeled for illustration.
    • More;
    • more inclined to ask that, what, and where;
    • more conversational;
    • and more specific.

    There’s not enough proof within this small sample to encourage a broad claim that calculations have”cognitive” prejudice, but even when we allow for potentially confounding variables, we could see the compounding problems we hazard by dismissing structured content. “Donlon,” for instance, might be a more common name than”Donion” and can be easily mistyped onto a QWERTY keyboard. Regardless, the Kaiser Permanente outcome we are given above for Dr. Donion is to get the wrong physician. Furthermore, in the Google Assistant voice search, the discussion format does not confirm whether we intended Dr. Donlon; it only provides us with her centre’s contact information. In these scenarios, providing clear, machine-readable content can only work to our benefit.

    The search for a second recommendation, MD, Stacey Donion, provides a different experience. Like the City of Boston site over, Dr. Donion’s profile about the Kaiser Permanente site is perfectly intelligible to a sighted human reader. But because its markup is entirely presentational, its material is almost invisible to software agents.
    This statement was meant to aid designers, strategists, and companies prepare for the imminent growth of cellular. With the growing prevalence of supporters and inquiries that are voice-based, the site of an organization is less and less inclined to become a potential customer’s first experience with content that is rich. In many instances — such as ratings, hours, telephone numbers, and locating location info –this engagement may be a user interaction with a data source.

      The City of Boston website's “How to Pay a Parking Ticket” page, showing a tabbed view of ways to pay and instructions for the first of those ways, paying online.

      While this use of semantic HTML offers distinct benefits over the”page screen” styling we found on the City of Boston’s website, the Seattle page also shows a weakness that is typical of manual approaches to semantic HTML. You will observe that, in the Google Assistant outcomes, the”Pay by Phone” option we found on the webpage wasn’t listed. This irregularity in arrangement could be what’s causing Google Assistant to omit this option from its results.
      The increasing prevalence of voice for a manner of access to information makes providing structured, machine-intelligible content even more significant. Software agents that are intelligent and voice are not freeing users from their computer keyboards, they are changing user behaviour. Based on LSA Insider, there are numerous critical differences between voice queries and typed questions. Voice queries often be:

      Content is already a mainstay of many types of information on the web. Recipe listings, for instance, have been predicated on structured content for ages. While I search, for example,”bouillabaisse recipe” on Google, I am provided with a standard list of links to recipes, in Addition to an overview of recipe steps, a picture, and a set of tags describing one example recipe:
      Remixed although these results aren’t only aggregated from disparate sources, but are translated to provide a customized answer to my particular question. Getting instructions, placing a telephone call, and accessing Dr. Ruhlman’s profile page on are all at the tips of my fingers.
      MultiCare Neuroscience Center, you will recall, is Dr. Donlon–the neuroscientist Google thinks I might be searching for, not the surgeon I am actually looking for–clinics.

      The Company case for content that is structured layout

      Connected data expands the fundamental capabilities of semantic HTML by describing not just what kind of item a page component is (“Pay My Ticket” is an

      ), but in addition the real-world concept that thing represents: this

      signifies a”cover activity,” which inherits the structural attributes of”trade activities” (the market of goods and services for cash ) and”activities” (actions carried out by an agent upon an object). Data creates a richer, more nuanced description of the association between page components, and it supplies the structural and technical advice that calculations need to bring data together from disparate sources.
      You’ll also observe that while Dr. Stacey Donion is an specific match in all of the listed search results–which can be numerous enough to fill the first results page–we are shown a”did you mean” link to get a different doctor. Multicare does, however, provide semantic and related data-rich profiles for their physicians.

      On creating material systems which work for algorithms and humans alike practitioners from the design community have shared a wealth of tools lately. These articles and books are a Terrific place to start, to Find out More about executing a content that is structured approach for your organization:

      Google search results page for Dr. Donion, showing a list of standard links for Dr. Donion, and a 'Did you mean: Dr Stacy Donlon MD' link at the top. There is a Google info box, as with the previous search results page example. But in this case the box does not display information about the doctor we searched for, Dr. Donion, but rather for 'Kaiser Permanente Orthopedics: Morris Joseph MD.'

      In addition to finding and excerpting information, such as recipe steps or parking ticket payment options, search and software representative calculations now today aggregate content from multiple sources using linked data.
      HTML is both presentational and semantic because individuals know what headings and lists look like and mean, and they can be recognized by algorithms as elements with interpretable relationships.
      These components, when designed communicate data hierarchy and connections visually to calculations, and semantically to viewers.
      In their recent publication, Designing Connected Content, Carrie Hane and Mike Atherton define structured content as content which is”planned, designed, and connected out an interface so that it’s prepared for any interface” A structured content design approach frames articles tools –such as articles, recipes, product descriptions, how-tos, profiles, etc.–maybe not as pages to be found and read, but as packages composed of little chunks of content data that relate to one another in meaningful ways.
      In a content that was structured design procedure, the relationships between content chunks are defined and described. This makes the connections between them as well as the material chunks legible to calculations. Algorithms can then translate a content package as the”page” I am searching for–or remix and adapt the exact same content to provide me a list of instructions, the amount of stars on a review, the period of time left before an office closes, and some number of additional concise answers to certain questions.
      The model of expecting users to discover and parse those pages to answer questions and constructing pages in the pre-voice age, is quickly becoming inadequate for successful communication. It precludes associations from participating in patterns of information discovery and seeking. And it might lead software agents to make inferences based on information that is insufficient or incorrect routing customers to rivals who communicate efficiently.
      It is likely that during repeated exposure to the search phrase”Dr. Stacey Donion,” Google Assistant fine-tuned the responses it supplied. The initial result, however, suggests that smart brokers might be at least partially susceptible to the exact same availability heuristic which affects individuals, wherein the advice that is simplest to remember often seems the most correct.
      In order to tailor results to such queries, software agents have started using the data that was linked in their disposal and subsequently inferring intent.

    • Content Modelling: A Master Skill,” Rachel Lovinger
    • Software broker search and semantic HTML

      In late 2016, Gartner predicted that 30 percent of internet browsing sessions could be achieved with no screen by 2020. Though there’s recent signs to suggest that the 2020 picture might be more complicated than these broad-strokes projections suggest, we are already seeing the effect that voice search, artificial intelligence, and smart software agents such as Alexa and Google Assistant are creating about the way information can be found and consumed on the web.
      In addition to the indexing function that conventional search engines function, smart brokers and AI-powered search calculations are now bringing into the mainstream of accessing advice: inference and aggregation two additional modes. Because of this, design campaigns that are devoted to producing effective pages are not sufficient to ensure the integrity or accuracy of content. Rather, by focusing on providing access to data within a structured, systematic way that’s legible to both machines and humans, content publishers may make sure that their content is both accessible and accurate in those new contexts, whether they’re producing chatbots or tapping into AI directly. In this article, we’ll consider the forms and effect of structured material, and we are going to close with a set of tools which can help you get started using a structured material approach to data design.

      The City of Seattle website’s 'Pay My Ticket' page, with two HTML heading elements outlined and labeled for illustration, and an open inspector panel, where we can see that the headings look the same to viewers but are marked up differently in the code.

      Getting started: that and how

      Linked data and content aggregation

      A difference is read by the machine Though every one of these components would seem exactly the same into a sighted human producing this webpage. While WYSIWYG text entry fields can support semantic HTML, in practice that they all too frequently fall prey to the idiosyncrasies of the very content authors. By making meaningful content structure that a core element of a website’s content management system, organizations may produce semantically correct HTML every moment, for every component. This is the base that makes it feasible to capitalize on the relationship descriptions given by data that is connected.

      A combined HTML code editor and preview window showing markup and results for heading, ordered list, and list item HTML tags.
      Google Assistant app on iPhone with the results of a “what time does Doc Dr Stacey donion office close” query. The results displayed include a card with “8AM–5PM” and the label “MulitCare Neuroscience Center, Monday hours,” as well as links to call the office, search on Google, get directions, or visit a website.

      This”featured snippet” view is possible since the content writer,, has broken this recipe in the smallest meaningful chunks appropriate with this subject matter and audience, and then expressed information about those chunks as well as the connections between them at a machine-readable manner. In this instance, has used both semantic HTML and linked data to produce this content not only a page, but in addition legible, accessible data which may be correctly interpreted, accommodated, and remixed by algorithms and smart agents. Let us look to learn how they work across indexing, aggregation, and inference contexts.
      In this example, Dr. Ruhlman’s profile has been marked up with microdata depending on the vocabulary. This content that is ordered foundation provides the semantic foundation on. The Knowledge Graph information box, for example, comprises Google reviews, which are not a part of Dr. Ruhlman’s profile, but that have been aggregated to this overview. The overview also includes an interactive map, made possible because Dr. Ruhlman’s workplace place is machine-readable.
      Say that I would like to gather more info about two recommendations I’ve been awarded for orthopedic surgeons. A hunt for an initial recommendation, Scott Ruhlman, MD, brings up a set of links as well as a Knowledge Graph information box containing a photograph, location, hours, telephone number, and reviews from the web.

      The City of Seattle website‘s “Pay My Ticket” page, showing four methods to pay a parking ticket in a simple, all-text layout.

      When we conduct Dr. Ruhlman’s Swedish Hospital profile site through Google’s Structured Data Testing Tool, we can observe that content about him is organised as small, different elements, each of which is marked up with descriptive types and characteristics that communicate the meaning of these traits’ values and how that they fit together as a whole–all in a machine-readable arrangement.

    Google search results page for Scott Ruhlman, MD, showing a list of standard links and an info box with an image, a map, ratings, an address, and reviews information.

    Semantic HTML is about the connections between document components, as opposed to just describing how they ought to look on display. Semantic elements like heading tags and record tags, for instance, indicate that the text they enclose is a heading (

    ) for the set of list items (

  • ) from the ordered list (
      ) that follows.

      In 2012, content strategist Karen McGrane wrote that”you don’t have to determine which device or apparatus your customers use to get your articles: they do.”
      Design practices that build bridges between consumer needs and technology requirements to fulfill business goals are crucial to making this vision a reality. Expertise designers all, content strategists, programmers, and information architects have a part to play in delivering and designing structured content solutions.

    1. Content Everywhere, Sara Wachter-Boettcher
    2. The City of Seattle’s”Pay My Ticket” page, even though it lacks the polished visual style of Boston’s site, also communicates parking ticket options obviously to individual visitors:

      Voice inquiries and articles inference

      HTML markup that concentrates just on the presentational aspects of a”page” may look perfectly fine to an individual reader however be completely illegible to an algorithm. If I want to find advice about how to pay a parking ticket, then a link from the home page takes me directly to the”How to Pay a Parking Ticket” display (scrolled to show detail):

      The role of structured articles

      The Google Assistant searchoffers a result than we see with Boston. In cases like this, the Google Assistant result links directly to the”Pay My Site” page and also lists several ways I can pay my ticket: online, by mail, and in person.
      Not one of the links supplied in this Google Assistant results take me straight to the”How to Pay a Parking Ticket” webpage, nor do the descriptions definitely allow me to know I’m on the right track. (I didn’t inquire about asking a hearing.) This is because the content on the City of Boston parking ticket page is designed to convey content connections visually but isn’t structured semantically in a way which communicates those connections to algorithms that are curious.
      I readily understand what my options are for paying as a person reading this page : I will pay online, in person, over the phone, or by email. However, things get a little confusing, if I request Google Assistant how to pay a parking ticket in Boston:

      Google Structured Data Testing tool, showing the markup for Dr. Ruhlman's profile page on the left half of the screen, and the structured data attributes and values for the structured content on that page on the right half of the screen.