Google search results page for Dr. Donion, showing a list of standard links for Dr. Donion, and a 'Did you mean: Dr Stacy Donlon MD' link at the top. There is a Google info box, as with the previous search results page example. But in this case the box does not display information about the doctor we searched for, Dr. Donion, but rather for 'Kaiser Permanente Orthopedics: Morris Joseph MD.'

In a content that was structured layout process, the connections between material chunks are specifically defined and described. This creates the relationships between them and both the content chunks legible into calculations. Algorithms can then translate a content bundle as the”webpage” I am searching for–or remix and adapt that same content to provide me a list of instructions, the number of celebrities on a critique, the period of time left before an office closes, and some number of other concise answers to certain queries.
In its most basic form, linked data is”a set of best practices for linking structured data on the web.” Connected data extends the basic capacities of semantic HTML by describing not just what sort of thing a page element is (“Pay My Ticket” is a

), but also the real world concept that item represents: this

represents a”cover action,” which inherits the structural characteristics of”trade activities” (the market of goods and services for cash ) and”actions” (actions carried out by a broker upon an item ). Linked data creates a more nuanced description and it provides the structural and conceptual information that algorithms need to bring data together.
Google search results page for Scott Ruhlman, MD, showing a list of standard links and an info box with an image, a map, ratings, an address, and reviews information.

The Use of structured articles

The City of Boston website's “How to Pay a Parking Ticket” page, showing a tabbed view of ways to pay and instructions for the first of those ways, paying online.

These components, when designed communicate connections and data hierarchy visually to readers, and to calculations. This arrangement allows Google Assistant to fairly stipulate the text from these

headings represents payment options under the

going”Pay My Ticket.”
In order to tailor results to such queries that were more especially formulated, software agents have begun using the linked data in their disposal and then inferring intent. If I request Google Assistant what time Dr. Ruhlman’s office closes, for instance, it responds,”Dr. Ruhlman’s office shuts in 5 p.m.,” and exhibits this result:

Linked content and data aggregation

Google search results info box for Dr. Ruhlman, showing an photo; a map; ratings; an address; reviews; buttons to ask a question, leave a review, and add a photo; and other people searched for.

You’ll also notice that although Dr. Stacey Donion is an exact match in all the listed search results–which are numerous enough to meet with the first results page–we’re shown a”did you mean” connection for a different physician. Stacy Donlon, MD, is a neurologist who practices. Multicare linked profiles that are data-rich to get their physicians and does provide semantic.
Although each of those elements would look the same to a human an enormous difference is read by the machine. That they too frequently fall prey into the idiosyncrasies of even the very content writers Even though WYSIWYG text entry fields can theoretically encourage HTML, in practice. By making purposeful content structure a core element of a site’s content management system, organizations can create semantically correct HTML every time, for every element. This is the foundation which makes it feasible to capitalize on the relationship descriptions afforded by data that is linked.
HTML is both semantic and presentational because individuals know what headings and lists look like and mean, and they can be recognized by calculations as components with defined, interpretable relationships.
While this use of semantic HTML offers distinct advantages over the”page screen” styling we saw on the City of Boston’s website, the Seattle page also reveals a weakness that’s typical of manual approaches to semantic HTML. You’ll notice that, at the Google Assistant outcomes, the”Pay by Phone” option we saw on the webpage wasn’t listed. This irregularity in semantic structure could be what is causing Google Assistant to omit this option from its own results.
Such fast interactions, however, are just one piece of a bigger problem: connected data is increasingly key to maintaining the integrity of articles online. Like the hospitals, schools I’ve consulted for years, and government agencies, don’t measure the success of their communications efforts in page views or ad clicks. Success for them means connecting patients, components, and community members with precise information regarding the organization, wherever that information may be found and services. This definition of success easily applies to practically any type of company working to further its business goals.
This statement was intended to help designers, strategists, and businesses get ready for the imminent rise of mobile. With the prevalence of smart assistants and queries that are voice-based, an organization’s site is less and less likely to become a customer’s first encounter with abundant content. In many cases — such as hours, finding location information, phone numbers, and ratings –this pre-visit participation might be a user’s only interaction with a data source.

The City of Seattle website‘s “Pay My Ticket” page, showing four methods to pay a parking ticket in a simple, all-text layout.

On creating material systems which work for algorithms and humans alike, practitioners from the design community have shared a wealth of resources in recent years. To learn more about executing a content that is structured approach for your organization, articles and these books are a great place to begin:

Google Assistant app on iPhone with the results of a “what time does dr. ruhlman office close” query. The results displayed include a card with “8:30AM–5:00PM” and the label, “Dr. Ruhlman Scott MD, Tuesday hours,” as well as links to call the office, search on Google, get directions, and visit a website. Additionally, there are four buttons labeled with the words “directions,” “phone number,” and “address,” and a thumbs-up emoji.

Semantic HTML is about the meaningful connections between document components, instead of simply describing how they should look on display.

Program broker hunt and semantic HTML

To be honest, subsequent trials of the search did produce the generic (and partly incorrect) practice place for Dr. Donion (“Kaiser Permanente Orthopedics: Morris Joseph MD”). The very first result, however, indicates that smart agents might be at least partially susceptible to the same availability heuristic which affects individuals, wherein the information that’s easiest to remember often seems the most appropriate.
In their recent book, Designing Connected Content, Carrie Hane and Mike Atherton define structured content as content that is”planned, developed, and connected outside an interface so it’s prepared for any interface” A structured content design strategy frames content tools –like articles, recipes, product descriptions, how-tos, profiles, etc.–not as pages available and read, but as bundles composed of small chunks of content information that all relate to one another in meaningful ways.
As a person reading this page, I understand for paying what my choices are I will pay online, in person, by email, or on the phone. However, things get a little confusing, if I ask Google Assistant how to pay a parking ticket in Boston:

MultiCare Neuroscience Center, you will remember, is Dr. Donlon–the neuroscientist Google believes I may be looking for, not the surgeon I am really looking for–clinics. Dr. Donlon’s profile page, similar to Dr. Ruhlman’s, is semantically structured and marked up with linked data.

Design practices that build bridges between technology requirements and user needs to meet business goals are critical to making this vision a reality. Experience designers all, content strategists, developers, and information architects have a role to play in delivering and designing content options that are structured.
The equivalent Google Assistant search , however, offers a effect that is more useful than we see with Boston. In this case, the Google Assistant direct links directly to the”Pay My Site” page and lists several ways I will pay my ticket: online, by email, and in person.
The model of constructing pages and anticipating users to detect and parse these pages to answer queries , though time-tested in the pre-voice age, is becoming insufficient for communication. Associations are precluded by it from engaging in emergent patterns of information seeking and discovery. And–as we saw in the case of searching for information about physicians–it might lead software representatives to make inferences based on information that is incorrect or inadequate , potentially routing clients to rivals who communicate effectively.

  • More;
  • more inclined to ask that, what, and where;
  • more conversational;
  • and more specific.
Google Structured Data Testing tool, showing the markup for Dr. Ruhlman's profile page on the left half of the screen, and the structured data attributes and values for the structured content on that page on the right half of the screen.

Getting started: who and how

Rather than a concentrated selection of focused actions to follow up on my query, I am presented for MultiCare Neuroscience Center.
Structured content is a mainstay of many kinds of information on the web. Recipe listings, for instance, have been based on content for ages. While I hunt, by Way of Example,”bouillabaisse recipe” on Google, I’m provided with a standard list of links to recipes, as well as an Summary of recipe measures, a picture, and a pair of tags describing one example recipe:

Google search results page for a bouillabaisse recipe including an image, numbered directions, and tags.
A”featured snippet” for about the Google results page.
Google Structured Data Testing tool showing the markup for a bouillabaisse recipe website on the left half of the screen and the structured data attributes and values for structured content on the right half of the screen.
The same page seen in Google’s Structured Data Testing Tool. The pane on the right shows the values that are machine-readable.
  • Content Everywhere, Sara Wachter-Boettcher
  • The increasing prevalence of voice as a manner of access to data makes providing structured, machine-intelligible content all the more important. Software agents that are smart and voice aren’t solely freeing users from their keyboards, they’re changing user behavior. Based on LSA Insider, there are numerous critical differences between voice inquiries and typed questions. Voice queries tend to be:
    If we conduct Dr. Ruhlman’s Swedish Hospital profile page via Google’s Structured Data Testing Tool, we can observe that content about him is structured as small, different elements, each of which can be marked up using descriptive types and characteristics that communicate both the significance of those attributes’ values and how they fit together as a whole–all in a machine-readable arrangement.

    Voice queries and content inference

    Because it is composed despite the visual simplicity of the Town of Seattle parking page, it effectively ensures that the integrity of its material across contexts. “Pay My Ticket” is a level-one going (

    ), and also every one of the options below it are level-two headings (

    ), which indicate that they are inferior to the level-one element.

    There is insufficient evidence in this small sample to encourage a wide claim that algorithms have”cognitive” prejudice, but even when we allow for possibly confounding variables, we can observe the compounding issues we risk by ignoring structured content. Regardless, the Kaiser Permanente outcome we’re given previously for Dr. Donion is to get the wrong doctor. Furthermore, from the Google Assistant voice search, the discussion format doesn’t confirm if we intended Dr. Donlon; it only provides us with her centre’s contact information. In such cases, providing transparent content can work to our benefit.

    In this example, we could see that Google can find lots of connections to Dr. Donion in its typical index outcomes, but it isn’t able to”know” the data about these sources well enough to demonstrate an aggregated result. In cases like this, the Knowledge Graph knows Dr. Donion is a Kaiser Permanente doctor, but it pulls at the wrong location and the wrong doctor’s name in its attempt to construct a Knowledge Graph screen.
    The search for a recommendation, Stacey Donion, MD, provides a different experience. Like the City of Boston site above, Dr. Donion’s profile on the Kaiser Permanente website is perfectly intelligible to a sighted human reader. But since its markup is presentational, its material is virtually invisible to software agents.
    In this example, Dr. Ruhlman’s profile is marked up using microdata depending on the vocabulary. This base provides the semantic foundation on which additional content connections can be constructed. The Knowledge Graph info box, for instance, includes Google testimonials, which aren’t part of Dr. Ruhlman’s profile, but which have been aggregated into this review.

    A combined HTML code editor and preview window showing markup and results for heading, ordered list, and list item HTML tags.
      The City of Seattle website’s 'Pay My Ticket' page, with two HTML heading elements outlined and labeled for illustration, and an open inspector panel, where we can see that the headings look the same to viewers but are marked up differently in the code.

      In addition to the indexing function that search engines perform, search calculations and smart brokers are bringing of accessing information: aggregation and 34, two modes. Because of this, design campaigns that are devoted to producing pages are sufficient to guarantee accuracy or the integrity of content published on the web. Instead, by focusing on providing access to information in a structured, systematic manner that is legible to both humans and machines, content publishers may ensure that their content is both accurate and accessible in these new contexts, whether they’re creating chatbots or tapping to AI directly. In this guide, we’ll consider the forms and impact of content, and we’ll close with a set of resources which can help you to get started using a material that is structured approach to information design.

      The Company case for content that is structured layout

      Say, by way of example, that I wish to gather more info about two recommendations I have been awarded for surgeons.

      HTML markup that concentrates only on the presentational facets of a”page” may look perfectly fine to a human reader but be completely illegible to an algorithm. If I want to find information about how to pay a parking ticket, then a link from the home page takes me directly to the”How to Pay a Parking Ticket” screen (scrolled to show detail):

      By conveying clearly in a context that now includes inference and aggregation, associations are effectively able to speak to their customers where users are, be it on an internet search engine results page, a web site, or even a digital assistant. They are also able to keep greater control over the accuracy of their messages by ensuring that the proper content hauled and can be found across contexts.
      Not one of the links provided in this Google Assistant results take me directly to the”How to Pay a Parking Ticket” page, nor do the descriptions clearly let me know I am on the ideal track. (I did not ask about requesting a hearing.) This is due to the fact that the content on the Town of Boston parking ticket page is styled to communicate content connections visually to readers but is not structured semantically in a manner that also communicates those relationships to algorithms that are curious.

      Google Assistant app on iPhone with the results of a “what time does Doc Dr Stacey donion office close” query. The results displayed include a card with “8AM–5PM” and the label “MulitCare Neuroscience Center, Monday hours,” as well as links to call the office, search on Google, get directions, or visit a website.

      In late 2016, Gartner called that 30 percent of internet browsing sessions could be done with no display by 2020. Earlier the exact same year, Comscore had predicted that half of all searches would be voice hunts by 2020. Even though there’s recent evidence to imply the 2020 picture may be more complicated than these broad-strokes projections imply, we’re already seeing the effect that voice hunt, artificial intelligence, and intelligent software agents like Alexa and Google Assistant are creating about the way information can be consumed and found on the web.

      Remixed although these outcomes aren’t only aggregated from sources, but are interpreted to supply a customized answer to my question. Getting directions, placing a telephone call, and obtaining Dr. Ruhlman’s profile page on are at the tips of my hands.

      The City of Seattle website’s “Pay My Ticket” page, with the HTML heading elements outlined and labeled for illustration.

      This”featured snippet” view is possible since the content publisher,, has broken this recipe in the smallest meaningful chunks suitable with this subject matter and audience, then expressed information about those chunks and the connections between them at a machine-readable manner. In this instance, has utilized both semantic HTML and linked data to produce this content not merely a page, but also legible, accessible data which may be correctly interpreted, adapted, and remixed by calculations and smart agents. Let’s look to learn how they work across inference contexts, and indexing, aggregation.
      The City of Seattle’s”Pay My Site” page, even though it lacks the glistening visual design of Boston’s site, also communicates parking ticket payment options obviously to individual people:

      Google Assistant app on iPhone with the results of a “how do I pay a parking ticket in Boston” query, showing results only weakly related to the intended content.

      In addition to finding and excerpting information, for example parking ticket payment options or recipe measures, applications and search representative algorithms also aggregate content from multiple sources by using linked data.

      Google Assistant app on iPhone with the results of a “how do I pay a parking ticket in Seattle” query, showing nearly the same results as on the desktop web page referenced above.