In a design process that was content, the relationships between material chunks are described and defined. This makes the relationships between them as well as the material chunks legible to algorithms. Algorithms can then translate a content package as the”webpage” I am searching for–or remix and accommodate the exact same content to provide me a list of directions, the amount of celebrities on a review, the amount of time left until an office closes, and some variety of additional concise answers to specific questions.

Program broker search and semantic HTML

Say that I want to collect more information about two recommendations I have been given for surgeons.

Getting started: who and how

HTML is both semantic and presentational because people understand what lists and headings look like and mean, and they can be recognized by calculations as elements with interpretable relationships.

HTML markup which focuses only on the presentational aspects of a”page” may look perfectly fine to a human reader however be completely illegible to an algorithm. If I want to find information about how to pay a parking ticket, a link from the home page takes me directly to the”How to Purchase a Parking Ticket” screen (scrolled to reveal detail):

Google Assistant app on iPhone with the results of a “how do I pay a parking ticket in Boston” query, showing results only weakly related to the intended content.

A structured content layout approach frames content resources–like articles, recipes, product descriptions, how-tos, profiles, etc.–not as pages available and read, but as packages composed of little chunks of content data that all relate to one another in meaningful ways.

The City of Seattle website’s “Pay My Ticket” page, with the HTML heading elements outlined and labeled for illustration.

To be honest, following trials of this search did produce the generic (and partly incorrect) practice location for Dr. Donion (“Kaiser Permanente Orthopedics: Morris Joseph MD”). The initial result, however, indicates that smart agents might be at least partially susceptible to the exact same availability heuristic that affects individuals, wherein the information that’s easiest to recall often seems the most appropriate.

Google Assistant app on iPhone with the results of a “what time does dr. ruhlman office close” query. The results displayed include a card with “8:30AM–5:00PM” and the label, “Dr. Ruhlman Scott MD, Tuesday hours,” as well as links to call the office, search on Google, get directions, and visit a website. Additionally, there are four buttons labeled with the words “directions,” “phone number,” and “address,” and a thumbs-up emoji.

The model of anticipating users to detect and parse these pages to answer queries and constructing pages from the era that is pre-voice, is quickly becoming insufficient for communication. From engaging in emerging patterns of information discovery and seeking, it precludes organizations. Andas we saw in the case of searching for information about physicians–it might lead software representatives to make inferences based on insufficient or erroneous information, possibly routing customers to competitors who communicate more effectively.
In this instance, we can see that Google can find lots of connections to Dr. Donion in its own standard index outcomes, but it is not able to”know” the data about those sources well enough to present an aggregated result. In this case, that the Knowledge Graph knows Dr. Donion is a Kaiser Permanente physician, but it pulls at the wrong location and the incorrect physician’s title in its attempt to build a Knowledge Graph display.

Search and software representative algorithms now today aggregate content from several sources by using linked data.
Along with the indexing function that search engines perform, AI-powered search calculations and clever agents are bringing in the mainstream of obtaining information: aggregation and 34, additional modes. Consequently, design efforts that are devoted to creating pages are not enough to guarantee the integrity or accuracy of articles. Instead, by focusing on providing access to data within a structured, systematic manner that’s legible to both humans and machines, content publishers may ensure that their content is equally accurate and accessible at these new contexts, whether or not they’re producing chatbots or tapping into AI directly. In this article, we’ll look at impact and the forms of material, and we’ll close with a set of resources which can help you get started with a content that is structured approach to data design.
There is not enough proof in this small sample to encourage a wide claim that algorithms have”cognitive” bias, but even if we allow for potentially confounding variables, we can observe the compounding problems we hazard by dismissing structured content. No matter the Kaiser Permanente outcome we’re given above for Dr. Donion is to get the wrong doctor. Furthermore, in the Google Assistant voice search, the interaction format does not verify whether we intended Dr. Donlon; it just provides us with her centre’s contact information. In such scenarios, providing clear, machine-readable content may work to our advantage.

Google Assistant app on iPhone with the results of a “what time does Doc Dr Stacey donion office close” query. The results displayed include a card with “8AM–5PM” and the label “MulitCare Neuroscience Center, Monday hours,” as well as links to call the office, search on Google, get directions, or visit a website.

Voice inquiries and articles inference

These kinds of quick interactions, but are just one small part of a larger problem: linked data is increasingly key to preserving the integrity of articles online. The organizations I have used as examples, such as the hospitals, government agencies, and schools I’ve consulted for decades, do not measure the achievement of the communications efforts in page views or ad clicks. Success for these means linking community members, constituents, and patients with solutions and accurate information about the organization. This definition of achievement easily applies to any type of company working to further its business goals on the web.

  • Content Strategy for Mobile, Karen McGrane
  • Linked content and data aggregation

    By communicating in a context that currently includes inference and aggregation, associations are able to speak to their users where users are, make it on a search engine results page, a web site, or even a voice-controlled digital assistant. They are also able to keep greater control over the truth of their messages by ensuring that the correct content can be found and hauled across contexts.
    In this example, Dr. Ruhlman’s profile is marked up with microdata depending on the language. This base provides the semantic foundation on which further content relationships could be constructed. The Knowledge Graph info box, for example, comprises Google testimonials, which aren’t part of Dr. Ruhlman’s profile, but which have been aggregated to this review.

      The prevalence of voice as a mode of access to information makes providing structured, machine-intelligible content more important. Software agents that are smart and voice are not freeing users from their computer keyboards, they’re changing user behaviour. According to LSA Insider, there are several important differences between voice inquiries and typed queries. Voice queries tend to be:
      You’ll also observe that while Dr. Stacey Donion is an specific match in all the listed search results–which are a lot of enough to meet with the initial results page–we’re shown a”did you mean” link for a different doctor. Multicare linked profiles and does, however, provide semantic.

      Google Structured Data Testing tool, showing the markup for Dr. Ruhlman's profile page on the left half of the screen, and the structured data attributes and values for the structured content on that page on the right half of the screen.

      Though each of those elements would seem the exact same to a human producing this webpage, the machine interpreting it reads a difference. That they all too frequently fall prey to the idiosyncrasies of even the very content authors while HTML can be theoretically supported by WYSIWYG text entry fields, in practice. By making content structure that is purposeful that a core part of a site’s content management system, organizations can create correct HTML for every element. This is the base which makes it feasible to capitalize on the rich relationship descriptions given by data.

      A combined HTML code editor and preview window showing markup and results for heading, ordered list, and list item HTML tags.
      Google Assistant app on iPhone with the results of a “how do I pay a parking ticket in Seattle” query, showing nearly the same results as on the desktop web page referenced above.

      Despite the visual ease of the Town of Seattle parking ticket page, it ensures that the integrity of its content across contexts as it’s composed of organized content that is marked up. “Buy My Ring” is a level-one going (

      ), and each of the options below it are level-two key words (

      ), which indicate that they are inferior to the level-one component.

      Google search results page for a bouillabaisse recipe including an image, numbered directions, and tags.
      A”featured snippet” for about the Google results page. The pane on the right shows the machine-readable values.
      Google search results page for Scott Ruhlman, MD, showing a list of standard links and an info box with an image, a map, ratings, an address, and reviews information.

      This”featured snippet” view is possible since the content publisher,, has broken this recipe in the smallest meaningful chunks suitable for this subject matter and audience, then expressed information about these chunks as well as the connections between them in an machine-readable way. In this example, has utilized both semantic HTML and linked data to produce this content not only a webpage, but in addition legible, accessible data which may be accurately interpreted, adapted, and remixed by calculations and smart agents. Let us look at each of these elements in turn to learn how they work across inference contexts, and indexing, aggregation.

      To be able to tailor results to such questions, software agents have started subsequently and inferring purpose using the data that was related in their disposal to assemble a succinct response.

      Stacey Donion, the hunt for a recommendation, MD, provides a very different encounter. Like the City of Boston site above, Dr. Donion’s profile on the Kaiser Permanente site is perfectly intelligible to some sighted individual reader. But because its markup is presentational, its content is invisible to software agents.

    Design practices that build bridges between consumer requirements and technology needs to fulfill company goals are critical to making this vision a reality. Information architects, content strategists, programmers, and expertise designers all have a part to play in designing and providing content options that are structured.

    In its most basic form, linked data is”a set of best practices for connecting structured data on the internet .” Linked data extends the fundamental capabilities of semantic HTML by describing not only what kind of thing a page component is (“Pay My Ticket” is an

    ), but also the real-world concept that item represents: that

    represents a”pay activity,” which inherits the structural attributes of”trade actions” (the exchange of goods and services for cash ) and”actions” (actions carried out by an agent upon an item ). Connected data creates a more nuanced description of the relationship between page components, and it supplies the structural and technical advice that algorithms need to meaningfully bring data together from disparate sources.
    Practitioners from throughout the design community have shared a wealth of resources lately on creating material systems which work for algorithms and humans alike. To Find out More about executing a content that is structured strategy for your organization, these articles and books are a great place to start:

  • Designing Connected Content, Carrie Hane and Mike Atherton
  • The Google Assistant hunt that is equivalent offers a result that is far more useful than we see with Boston. In this case, the Google Assistant result links right to the”Pay My Ticket” page and lists a number of ways I will pay my ticket: on line, by email, and also in person.
    Instead of a concentrated selection of actions I’m presented with all the hours of operation and contact info .
    Semantic HTML is markup that communicates information about the purposeful connections between document elements, instead of just describing how they should look on display.

    The Company case for structured content design

    These elements, when designed well, communicate information hierarchy and relationships visually to viewers, and semantically into calculations. This arrangement allows Google Assistant to reasonably surmise that the text from those

    headings represents payment options under the

    heading”Pay My Ticket.”
    When we run Dr. Ruhlman’s Swedish Hospital profile site through Google’s Structured Data Testing Tool, we could observe that articles about him is structured as small, discrete elements, each of which can be marked up with descriptive types and characteristics that communicate both the significance of those traits’ values and the way they fit together as a whole–all in a machine-readable arrangement.

    As this page being read by a human, I understand what my choices are for paying : I will pay online, in person, on the phone, or by mail. If I request Google Assistant to pay a parking ticket in Boston, but things get a bit confusing:

    Google search results info box for Dr. Ruhlman, showing an photo; a map; ratings; an address; reviews; buttons to ask a question, leave a review, and add a photo; and other people searched for.

    Structured content is a mainstay of many types of information on the web. Listings, for example, have been predicated on structured content for years. While I hunt, for example,”bouillabaisse recipe” on Google, I’m provided with a regular list of links to recipes, as well as an overview of recipe measures, an image, and a pair of tags describing one example recipe:
    This statement was intended to aid strategists, designers, and businesses get ready for the imminent growth of mobile. With the prevalence of smart assistants and inquiries, the site of an organization is less inclined to become a potential visitor’s first encounter with content that is abundant and less. In many instances –such as locating location information, hours, telephone numbers, and ratings–this pre-visit participation might be a user interaction with an information resource.

    None of the links supplied in the Google Assistant results take me straight to the”How to Pay a Parking Ticket” webpage, nor do the descriptions definitely let me know I’m on the perfect path. (I didn’t ask about requesting a hearing) This is because the content on the City of Boston parking ticket page is designed to convey content relationships visually but isn’t structured in a way which also conveys those connections to algorithms that are curious.

    Google search results page for Dr. Donion, showing a list of standard links for Dr. Donion, and a 'Did you mean: Dr Stacy Donlon MD' link at the top. There is a Google info box, as with the previous search results page example. But in this case the box does not display information about the doctor we searched for, Dr. Donion, but rather for 'Kaiser Permanente Orthopedics: Morris Joseph MD.'

    While this usage of semantic HTML offers distinct benefits over the”page display” styling we found on the Town of Boston’s website, the Seattle page also reveals a weakness that is typical of manual approaches to semantic HTML. You will observe that, at the Google Assistant results, the”Pay by Phone” option we found on the webpage wasn’t recorded. This irregularity in semantic arrangement could be what’s causing this option to be omitted by Google Assistant from its own results.
    Remixed although these results are not only aggregated from sources, but are translated to provide a response to my particular question. Getting instructions, placing a telephone call, and obtaining Dr. Ruhlman’s profile site on are all at the ends of my hands.

    In late 2016, Gartner predicted that 30 percent of internet browsing sessions could be done without a screen by 2020. Earlier the exact same year, Comscore had predicted that half of all searches are voice searches by 2020. Though there’s recent evidence to imply the 2020 picture might be more complex than these broad-strokes projections suggest, we are already seeing the effect that voice search, artificial intelligence, and smart software agents such as Alexa and Google Assistant are making on the way data is consumed and found on the web.

    The City of Boston website's “How to Pay a Parking Ticket” page, showing a tabbed view of ways to pay and instructions for the first of those ways, paying online.
    The City of Seattle website’s 'Pay My Ticket' page, with two HTML heading elements outlined and labeled for illustration, and an open inspector panel, where we can see that the headings look the same to viewers but are marked up differently in the code.

    MultiCare Neuroscience Center, you will recall, is where Dr. Donlon–the neuroscientist Google thinks I may be searching for, not the orthopedic surgeon I’m actually searching for–clinics.

    The City of Seattle website‘s “Pay My Ticket” page, showing four methods to pay a parking ticket in a simple, all-text layout.

    The City of Seattle’s”Pay My Ticket” page, even though it lacks the polished visual style of Boston’s site, also communicates parking ticket payment options clearly to individual visitors:

  • Content Everywhere, Sara Wachter-Boettcher
  • The role of structured content